Tom C.S. Yang
Juice extracted from lowbush blueberries was used to prepare a low-calorie jelly. Extraction methods included cold-extraction, hot-extraction, and enzyme-extraction. Enzyme-extraction produced the highest yield and least viscous juice with lighter and redder color than other extraction methods whereas hot-extracted juice had an intermediate yield, greatest viscosity and darkest color. Cold-extracted juice made the hardest jelly. Jellies prepared from cold-extracted and enzyme-extracted juices were darker and had a more intense purple color than the corresponding juices, whereas jelly prepared from hot-extracted juice was lighter and redder in color than its corresponding juice.
B804: The Growth and Change of High Technology Industries in the State of Maine: Implications for State and Local Development Policy
Dennis A. Watkins and Thomas G. Allen
To shed light on Maine’s high-tech industries, employment and production data were gathered for 11O firms including 20 three-digit SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) categories. The time periods covered were 1970, 1976, and 1981. This data base was provided by the Bureau of Employment Security and the Bureau of Labor Standards of the Maine Department of Labor. The research was guided by the following questions: How are firms distributed among specific high technology industries and has this distribution changed over time? What is the geographic distribution of high technology firms within the state and how is this distribution changing? How dynamic have Maine's high technology industries been with respect to plant openings, closings, and acquisitions? How is employment generation distributed by size, age, SIC, and type of firm? Does Maine show a potential comparative advantage for specific high technology SIC's? and What implications can be drawn from the Maine data for rural communities seeking high technology development?
B805: Field Appraisal of Resource Management Systems: Crop Yield and Quality Relationships with Soil Erosion—1981
Paul R. Hepler, Lauren H. Long, Kenneth J. LaFlamme, and John H. Wenderoth
This document presents objectives and results of the Field Appraisal of Resource Management Systems (FARMS) study'S second year. The principal objectives of FARMS were to study the relationship of crop yields to soil erosion and to simulate the economic nature of this relationship. Crop management, soils, conservation practices and management, crop yields, soil chemistry, and sociological data were collected from 800 plots in 1981. This report presents statistics for rill and sheet soil erosion, which are estimated by the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and assumed to represent a long-term rather than short-term effect. The report also presents summary statistics for each of the factors in the USLE: for potato yields and quality, for yields of six other field crops, and for soil nutrient analyses. No general response of potato yield and quality to predicted soil erosion was found. However, individual potato varieties responded differently to predicted soil erosion. Potato yields and specific gravity were found to be significantly related to the Cover and Management factor (C). Potato yield was found to decrease as intensity of potato production increased in the rotation period. Potato yields were significantly reduced when the previous crop was potatoes in comparison to grain or hay.
B790: Effects of the Symbex System on Yield, Quality, and Tuber Size Distribution of Katahdin Potatoes Maine -- 1979-81
L. S. Morrow and H. J. Murphy
This paper reports on three years of research conducted at Aroostook Farm; Presque Isle, Maine, to determine the effectiveness of "Symbex System" products for improving the yield and quality of Katahdin potatoes. These products included the following: Symbex, a bacterial soil inoculant; Symbooster, a non-inoculated soil additive containing nutrients for microbial development; Symcoat, a bacterial seedpiece treatment; and Symspray, a foliar applied plant food supplement.
T. B. Saviello and R. A. Struchtemeyer
As the economic and aesthetic value of mountain areas increases, more pressure is applied to develop and manage them. This study was conducted on Sugarloaf Mountain ski area . It involved examining soils above and below the 765 m contour, which Maine had established as a critical contour for land management . Soils were excavated and profiles were described and sampled. Soil and topographical features that proved significant in predicting the manageability of this mountain ecosystem included slope, drainage, depth, texture, organic matter, pH and nutrient content.
B793: Estimation of the Cost of Providing Publicly-Supported Outdoor Recreational Facilities in Maine
Stephen D. Reiling and Mark W. Anderson
Federal, state and local government agencies have historically played a significant role in providing outdoor recreational facilities for public use. Public agencies provide campgrounds, picnic areas, hiking trails, access to swimming and boating sites, interpretive facilities and programs, and numerous other types of recreational facilities. Until recently, very little attention was devoted to the costs associated with the provision of these facilities. Public funds were allocated to the construction and operation of the facilities without much concern for the economic consequences of these actions. However, during the last decade several studies have documented the cost of providing publicly supplied outdoor recreational facilities and some of the consequences. These studies have analyzed a wide range of facilities managed by state and federal agencies.
The objective of this project is to measure the cost of providing various outdoor recreational facilities in Maine. The project was initiated in the Spring of 1981 following a meeting of personnel from several of the public agencies that provide recreational services and facilities. Several concerns were voiced at that meeting, including the need to revise user fees, uncertainty regarding the level of future agency funding, lack of information about provision costs, the need to document provision costs for legislative bodies, and questions regarding whether users should pay a larger share of the costs of providing the recreational facilities. A cost of provision study of a wide range of public recreational facilities seemed to be a first step in addressing many of these concerns. A cooperative agreement was written in which the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics at the University of Maine at Orono would perform the study with funding provided by the U.S. Forest Service. Agencies participating in the study include the Maine Bureau of Parks and Recreation, Baxter State Park, Evans Notch Ranger District of the White Mountains National Forest, and Acadia National Park. The actual facilities included in the study are shown in Figure 1.
Richard A. Cook, Martha Henson Burns, Louise A.L. Taber, and Barbara E. Footer
Obesity is an issue of state and national magnitude. Obesity is a form of malnutrition in which the total contribution of calories from the diet exceeds the body's needs to such a degree that the physiological mechanism for food intake control (appetite/hunger) becomes imprecise and allows too much food to be consumed (overcompensation of energy intake).
This report expresses height and weight characteristics of Maine adults on a county basis (weighted means) for use locally. Weight distributions are compared according to both ideal weights and average weights of the national population. Comparisons are also made with respect to grouped urban and rural counties.
B795: Production, Marketing, Socieconomic Characteristics and the Perceived Needs of Maine's Small Farmers
Neil C. Buitenhuys and Alan S. Kezis
For nearly 30 years small scale farming was considered inefficient and undesirable. Small farmers found it increasingly difficult to compete with large operators in the market place because of insufficient produce quantity, the seasonal nature of their production, and lack of marketing information . During this period, large commercial farmers moved to higher levels of management sophistication and use of modern production technology. The market system also became more sophisticated because of mass marketing of agricultural products, monocultural production techniques,and highly advanced assembly and distribution systems.
In the late 1960's and early 1970's, it became evident that consumers' food buying behavior across the nation was changing. Food buying clubs and consumer cooperatives began to emerge as food prices increased. Also, many consumer food preferences change~with quality factors such as freshness, taste, cultural methods, packaging techniques, and nutrition becoming more important to people . These changes provided opportunity for small scale farming.
A profile of Maine's small scale farms and farmers was created so that their needs can be better served. This profile will hopefully provide a base for more effective research, education, and service. All variables examined were categorized by gross sales category, to greater assist in developing a complete profile of the small farm in Maine.
B796: A Comparison of Direct Market Users and Nonusers Habits, Acceptance, and Preferences for Direct Marketed Small Farms Horticulture Commodities
Neil C. Buitenhuys, F. Richard King, Alan S. Kezis, and Howard W. Kerr
Until recently small scale farming has been considered inefficient and undesirable. Small farmers have found it difficult to compete with large operators in the market place because of their inability to provide a significant quantity of product over an extended period of time to meet the needs of large scale marketing firms. According to the 1978 Census of Agriculture small farms, those with sales under $40,000, account for nearly 76 percent of the farms in Maine. Therefore, a market system has developed which is not amenable to the small farmer who represents a significant segment of Northeast agriculture.
Though the formal marketing system has become relatively inaccessible to the small farmer, changes in the American consumer's preferences offer the small farmer hope. In the late 1960s and through the 1970s it became evident that food buying behavior of consumers across the nation was changing. It appeared that consumer food preferences changed, with quality factors such as freshness and taste, growing methods and packaging, and nutrition becoming important to more people. The objective of this paper was to determine direct market users and non-users habits, levels of acceptance, and preferences for direct marketed small farm horticultural commodities in Maine.
Raymond J. Nowak, Edward F. Johnston, and Alan S. Kezis
Both internal and external factors relating to the production and marketing of Maine potatoes continue to influence and often undermine the profitability and market position of this important agricultural industry in the State. Among these factors are the technical aspects related to commercial production, storage and packing of potatoes in Maine; the current market structure; responses by the Maine industry to market preferences; and public policies, both foreign and domestic, affecting financial conditions and promotional activities in Maine and competing production regions. The quality of Maine potatoes in produce outlets in major Eastern U.S. markets is affected by production practices, handling methods, storage conditions, and quality maintenance and control practices. The organizational aspects of the marketing system at least partially determine the level of success in overall product marketing including the accurate and timely transmission of market information. Successful marketing also depends on the ability arid willingness of the industry to make use of such information in developing and implementing future marketing plans. Credit availability and policies in Maine and other regions are increasingly important as profit margins are reduced in times of low market prices and increasing production costs for all producers. In order to expand market demand for its product, industry promotional expenditures and activities may be inadequate.
B799: Field Appraisal of Resource Management Systems "Farms" Crop Yield and Quality Relationships with Soil Erosion
Paul R. Hepler, Lauren H. Long, and John A. Ferwerda
This document presents objectives and preliminary results of the Field Appraisal of Resource Management Systems (FARMS) study. This study assumes that estimates of soil erosion using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) represent long-term rather than short- term effects. The FARMS study randomly sampled 2400 plots over a three year period, 1980-82, for: crop management, soils, conservation practices and management, crop yields, soil chemistry, and sociological data.
This report presents analyses from the 800 plots sampled in 1980. Statistics of rill and sheet soil erosion, as estimated by the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), are presented. Data are presented for each of the factors in the USLE, for potato yields and quality, for yield of other field crops, and for soil nutrient analyses.
A significant response of yield to erosion was found when the dataset was limited to the most commonly found soil, Caribou (144 plots). Data analyses including potato yields for all varieties and soils (429 plots) do not show any relation to predicted erosion. Regression analysis predicts that for each ton increase in soil erosion per acre per year up to 12 tons, a decrease of 2.3 hundred- weight of potatoes per acre will occur. The cover and management factor (C) was found to be the most important variable in the USLE in predicting potato yield decreases. With each increase of 0.1 C, the predicted yield decrease amounted to 17 hundredweight gross for potatoes, and 20 hundredweight decrease for US-1 potatoes per acre.
Benjamin F. Hoffman Jr.
Harvesting small trees- 4-8 inches in diameter at breast height -has not been common in North America, but as average tree size declines, loggers must cut smaller stems. Many softwood stands in the Northeast contain 2000-4000 stems per acre with mean stand diameters of six inches or less (see Fig. 1). If diameter averages ten inches, there may be 6-7 trees per cord, but if it declines to six inches, loggers may handle four times as many trees for the same volume. Handling this increased number of pieces per unit requires changes in operating techniques.
Manual felling and limbing may be cost effective for early thinning of northeastern softwoods. Using regression analysis with observations of 695 trees, models are presented for predicting cutting time based on stem diameter and basal area. When trees were limbed in groups of 2-7 stems, limbing time was reduced by 15% to 40%. The results of other studies of alternative, more efficient chainsaw limbing techniques are discussed.
Eric J. Hanson, Amr A. Ismail, and Homer Metzger
Burning fields with fuel oil is currently the most practical method of pruning blueberries but is costly and destructive to the organic material on the surface of the soil. Fuel oil is a nonrenewable resource that is rapidly increasing in cost and, in the future, may become less readily available for this use. The need to develop alternative means of pruning lowbush bleuberries is evident. This bulletin compares the economics of six pruning procedures on operations of three sizes. The budgets are based on certain assumptions and costs which will change over time. The results will allow blueberry growers to compare procedures to determine which one is most economically feasible for their particular operation and its resources.
H. J. Murphy, L. S. Morrow, D. A. Young, R. A. Ashley, M. D. Orzolek, R. J. Precheur, O. S. Wells, R. Jensen, M. R. Henninger, J. B. Sieczka, J. S. Pisarczyk, R. E. Cole, R. E. Wakefield, and R. J. Young
Cooperative variety trials were conducted at 33 locations to determine field, storage, and processing behavior of selected potato clones and varieties when grown under soil, climatic, and cultural conditions common to the potato growing areas of 12 cooperating States and the Province of New Brunswick, Canada. These trials are all contributions to Regional Project NE107 entitled, "Breeding and Evaluation of New Potato Clones in the Northeast Area."
Steven P. Skinner, Brenda S. Bridges, Stephen D. Reiling, and Dennis A. Watkins
This report uses breakeven analysis to assess the financial feasibility of two health maintenance organization (HMO) models which have received considerable support from health-care professionals as potentially viable organizations in rural areas. The two models analyzed, the individual practice association and satellite clinic, represent quite different organizational and financial structures. Enrollment levels required for each HMO model to attain financial viability for specified premium rates are calculated. In addition, the effects of varying key health-care utilization rates on an HMO's financial position are assessed. This information should be of interest to extension agents and others who are working with groups contemplating a variety of health initiatives.
Janice L. Taylor and Stephen D. Reiling
This publication focuses on the characteristics, attitudes, and preferences of Maine anglers and examines the differences that exist between open water and ice fishing activities and participants. The results provide valuable information for management purposes in that the Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife can assess future policies on the basis of more complete information about fishermen in general and the attitudes and preferences of open water and ice anglers in particular.
B779: Ectomycorrhizae of Maine. 2 A Listing of Lactarius with the Associated Hosts (with Additional Information on Edibility)
Richard L. Homola and Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj
Thirty-nine Lactarii have been collected and identified with their possible ectomycorrhizal associates for Maine. Many of the Lactarius are new reports for Maine. Most of the ectomycorrhizal relationships reported from Maine are confirmed by the work of others. The edibility comments are those of the authors from the popular mushroom guides mentioned. Colored photos of thirty-nine Lactarii are included.
B764: Nitrogen Transformation and Movement in a Marine Sediment Soil Following Treatment with Varying Rates of Poultry Manure
R. F. Jeffrey and F. E. Hutchinson
Nitrate in water can be hazardous to human health and also cause excess algal growth. Recent research has revealed agriculture to be a potential contributor to these problems. Nitrate (N03-) present in the soil, in amounts in excess of plant needs,may be leached through the soil profile to the groundwater and eventually to lakes and streams. This investigation was undertaken under laboratory conditions to determine the transformation and movement of nitrogen through a poorly drained marine sediment soil following application of varying rates of poultry manure.
Katherine O. Musgrave
One goal of health education is to diminish problems through prevention of disease rather than through intervention or treatment. Physicians and health scientists have identified such nutrition-related diseases as obesity, atherosclerosis, dental disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, and cancer as conditions that may be affected by lifelong dietary habits. The purpose of this bulletin is to describe procedures for assessing nutritional status of school children utilizing anthropometric measurements and dietary intake records and to report the findings.
William R. Baron, David C. Smith, Harold W. Borns Jr., James Fastook, and Anne E. Bridges
The purpose of this Bulletin is to reconstruct a series of long run temperature and precipitation instrumental records for Maine (monthly means and accumulations). We hope that the data tables and graphs produced here will be of use to climatologists and other researchers and to Maine residents who are interested in the climatic history of the state. To aid in reconstruction, regional records were formed by grouping records from several geographical locations.
Much of the data reproduced here have been published elsewhere in a wide variety of publications. Some are found easily in libraries while others are not readily available. A small number of records are published here for the first time. A bibliography of source materials, organized by region and then location is provided for those wishing to consult the original records.
Mark B. David and Roland A. Struchtemeyer
Research was conducted to investigate the effects of spraying sewage effluent on hardwood forested land at Sugarloaf Mountain, Maine. Soil, organic matter, tree foliage, groundwater, and effluent samples were collected in 1978 and 1979. Soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. The entire organic pad was removed as a single sample, with no separation of the 0 1 and 0 2 layers. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) foliage was sampled periodically for nutrient levels. Groundwater sampling was accomplished with a total of 28 suction lysimeters placed at depths of 30 or 64 cm.
Results indicate significant increases, following spraying, in the concentrations of exchangeable cations (calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium) in the organic pad and in the upper 20 cm of soil. Sprayed soils and organic matter showed significant increases in pH, in available phosphorus, and in the percentage of base saturation levels. Total calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, and manganese levels were significantly increased in the organic pad as a result of spraying. Total nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen levels indicated no differences among treatment groups for both soil and organic pad samples. The C:N ratio in the organic pad was numerically decreased because of spraying, indicating a slight increase in the decomposition rate of organic matter; this loss, however, did not change the percentage of organic matter in the soil. Sprayed sugar maple foliage showed significant increases in the percentage of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, but a significant decrease in the percentage of manganese.
The percentage of removal of the elements in the effluent ranged from 48.4 percent for sodium to 98.1 percent for phosphorus. Nitrate-nitrogen removal was 68.1 percent, with the average level measured in the groundwater from sprayed areas being 2.30 mg/ l. Lateral movement of all elements from the spray area was detected. Overall, the disposal system appears to be working quite well, with the plants and soil removing between 48 and 98 percent of the applied nutrients.
B753: The Uptake of Nutrients by Katahdin Potatoes as Influenced by Soil Moisture Regimes and Rates of Fertilization
Gurbachan Singh Kalra and Roland A. Struchtemeyer
In Aroostook County, Maine, where the annual average rainfall is 35-40 inches, it is generalized by many that moisture is not a limiting factor in potato production. Weather data for Aroostook do, however, show frequent periods of low rainfall during the growing season, and these periods do cause temporary moisture deficiencies in the crop. Struchtemeyer, based on irrigation research in Maine, showed that the potato plant needs approximately 1 inch of water per week during the growing season. From the 1936 to 1955 Maine Weather Records, Pullen and Schrumpf (23) found that about 70 percent of the time, less than 1 inch per week of rainfall can be expected. Thus the use of supplemental irrigation for high potato yields in Maine seems feasible.
Richard A. Cook, Walter G. McIntire, and Rose-Marie C. Louten
Information concerning teenage pregnancy in Maine is limited. Published data have been incomplete and fail to provide for adequately planning specific health and/or educational programs. This research was designed to examine data pertaining to fertility patterns of women 19 years of age and younger in Maine by county, by city, by age of mother, and by birth order of child.
Homer B. Metzger
Large variation in unit costs among firms performing essentially the same functions is characteristic of the milk distribution industry. This is so despite their operating under economic conditions which provide generally similar prices for goods and services needed for processing and delivery operations. Presumably the special character of the firms in terms of size, management, age of facilities, and equipment may account for cost differences. What the factors may be is import ant to understanding the ability of firms to operate profitably under a pricing system in which prices received for products sold are largely determined by the lowest cost at which milk can be distributed to consumers . It was the objectives of the analysis reported herein to 1) examine the variation In financial and physical factors thought to affect unit distribution costs and 2) determine the combination of factors which largely explain the differences in unit costs.
Harold E. Young, John H. Ribe, and Donald C. Hoppe
The purpose of this study is to establish the degree of reliability that can be placed in biomass as a means of assessing thinning potential and site productivity of immature forest stands in Maine. The above ground biomass on 205 plots representing a variety of age classes in immature hardwood and softwood stands on meso, wet, and dry sites was cut and weighed including the standing dead trees on softwood sites. In addition, 45 point sample biomass plots were located and measured in mature all aged stands. Graphical analysis was used to relate stand characteristics to age by site and species groups for the immature stands.
T. M. Mingo and J. B. Dimond
Spring phenology of balsam fir in Maine was investigated during 1978. Multiple regression models based on climatic and geographic factors were developed for predicting fir phenology and accounted for a maximum of 52.6% of the observed phenological variation. Generalized maps depicting observed and expected phenology patterns are also presented.
R. Frederick Faunce, Alan S. Kezis, and Gregory K. White
The Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife has direct responsibility for freshwater fish and wildlife in the state. For the Department to properly administer its program and funds, it requires knowledge of the needs and desires of the citizenry it serves. With such information, the Department can better fulfill the governmental mandate that public funds be put to their highest and best use.
This bulletin reports some of the findings of a recent survey of residents and non-residents who purchased a 1976 Maine hunting license. It summarizes important characteristics of this group so that wildlife managers may better understand the attitudes and preferences of the state's hunters and, therefore, more effectively carry out the Department's mandate.
B763: The Perceptions, Attitudes, and Reactions of Maine Commercial Fishermen Regarding Extended Jurisdiction and Fishery Management Practices
Elizabeth Ferguson and Wallace C. Dunham
The enactment of the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976 (FCMA) on March 1, 1977 marked the beginning of a new era for the fishing industry of the United States. This act, commonly referred to as the "200 mile limit", has the potential of bringing about important institutional changes in the fishing industry. The legislation was necessitated by increased fishing pressure from both United States and foreign vessels, and the apparent inadequacy of existing fishery management practices and controls. The FCMA provides a framework of regulations which has the scope and flexibility needed to make wise decisions regarding our fishery resources. But if the potential significance of this act is to be fulfilled, careful analysis of the effects and implications of its policies must be made.
It is the individual Maine fisherman who is presently feeling the initial direct impact of the FCMA and its regulations. The fishermen now have a greater expanse of ocean in which foreign vessels are restricted. They must limit their catches to prescribed quotas and follow regulations regarding closed seasons and closed areas, or risk fines. In order for many Maine fishermen to take advantage of the entire area of the 200 mile zone they may need to consider changing from the traditional small, family owned vessels to larger, more sophisticated vessels capable of negotiating the far offshore areas. Thus it is important to understand the perceptions and evaluations of Maine commercial fishermen regarding the FCMA, as they are present at the actual working level of this plan, and can see how the regulations and policies are carried out. The Maine fishermen should thus provide valuable insight in the application, impact, and effectiveness of the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976.
The main objective of the study reported here was to determine the perceptions, attitudes, and reactions of Maine commercial fishermen regarding extended jurisdiction and fishery management practices.
Andrew I. Chase and Harold E. Young
The research described in this report was a further effort to determine the potential of woody plants and forest waste not normally used commercially as a source of wood pulp. The results of previous studies of this subject have been reported in several technical journals and as LSA Experiment Station Bulletins over a period of several years.
It was concluded that the only feasible way of harvesting this type of material for pulping would be as a whole plant. The small size and large proportions of bark and small branches would preclude any kind of barkwood separation process. If species of this kind and size could be grown and harvested as a crop, it might be possible to improve pulping yield and pulp characteristics by selectively pulping species, using optimum pulping conditions which might vary with the species.
Louis A. Ploch
This study of three Kennebec County towns - Randolph, Vassalboro, and Rome - is a part of the Northeast cooperative project titled "Community Services for Nonmetropolitan People in the Northeast," (Kuehn, 1977). In 1974 and 1975, researchers from nine university-related agricultural experiment stations, functioning as Northeast Regional Committee NE-77 conducted studies to determine variations in community services and reactions of residents to them.
It was originally hypothesized by the NE-77 researchers that in a study of the availability, use of, and satisfaction with services in the Northeast, counties would serve as the most useful unit of analysis. The utility of this approach is demonstrated in Kuehn (1977). In this report, however, the analysis is at the level of the town rather than the county. This course has been taken for two reasons. First, the county data for the region are well analyzed in Kuehn ( 1977) and it was our objective to provide data - in effect, case studies - for those with a particular interest in small New England communities. Secondly, as recognized by community scholars and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the town is the effective legal, political, and social unit in New England; therefore, it was deemed appropriate to provide the data at the town level.
B751: The Effects of Mechanized Harvesting on Soil Conditions in the Spruce-Fir Region of North-Central Maine
Gregory T. Holman, Fred B. Knight, and Roland A. Struchtemeyer
The impact of the new harvesting methods on soil with respect to soil disturbance is largely unknown. One objective of this study was to determine the extent of soil compaction and disturbance to the organic cover of the soil resulting from the use of mechanical harvesters and rubber-tired skidders during logging operations in north-central Maine.
Homer B. Metzger
In making payments to producers, fluid milk dealers pay for milk on a utilization basis. That used as fluid whole milk, low fat, or skim milk is paid for at a Class I price and all other milk, regardless of how used, is paid for at a lower Class II price. The milk classified as Class II is often distinguished as that processed and that not processed at the fluid milk receiving plant. The latter is shipped to a surplus milk disposal facility and in Maine, the dealer pays producers a lower, Class lib price for it. This milk ultimately is processed into cream for ice cream, cheeses, skim milk powder, butter and other storage products. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum reserve requirements of fluid milk processing plants and to analyze some of the factors influencing the level of reserves.
Richard L. Homola and Paul A. Mistretta
Forty-nine boletes have been collected and identified with their possible ectomycorrhizal associates for Maine. Most of the boletes are new reports for Maine. Acer negundo is a new host report for Boletinellus merulioides. Most of the ectomycorrhizal relationships reported here for Maine are confirmed by the work of others. Colored photos of thirty-seven Maine boletes are included.
Homer B. Metzger and Amr A. Ismail
Blueberry production is primarily a part time enterprise with a wide variation in acreages per grower and a modest investment per acre.
Blueberry growers recovered cash costs and most of the variable costs of producing and harvesting the 1974 crop. For a competitive return on investment and a modest wage, the average grower would have had to receive 35 cents rather than 20 cents per pound, considering the yields obtained in 1974. To be reasonably assured of adequate returns, a grower should achieve yields of over 1,000 pounds per acre.
B739: Structure, Conduct, and Performance of the Commercial Campground Industry in Maine Part I: Industry Structure
Louis W. Pompi and George J. Seel
The major objective of this research was to assemble basic, quantitative data for Maine's commercial campground industry and to analyze these data for the purpose of providing a detailed description of the industry's organizational structure, conduct, and performance. A large amount of information was assembled and organized and has been presented in some detail in preceding sections. Major findings of the structural analysis and, where appropriate, conclusions are summarized below.
L.O. Safford, H.E. Young, and T.W. Knight
In this experiment we studied the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and soil on the nutrient content of foliage and average basal area growth of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees in stands that were approaching economic maturity. These trees were on three common soil series of eastern and central Maine. We conducted foliage analyses for 5 years after fertilization, and measured the basal area growth for 9 years after treatment.
B741: Structure, Conduct, and Performance of the Commercial Campground Industry in Maine Part II: Industry Conduct and Performance
Louis W. Pompi and George J. Seel
This study deals specifically with the privately owned and operated commercial campground industry in Maine. The general goals of the research are: 1. To assemble basic, quantitative data for Maine's commercial campground industry. 2. To analyze these data for the purpose of providing detailed information, having implications for both public policy formulation and the management of new and existing campground firms, on the structure, conduct and performance of the industry.
Homer B. Metzger and Nicholas E. Flanders
Two basic objectives were formulated for this study: 1) To determine the physical, human and financial resources, as well as the source of income from farm and non-farm outlets available to small farm families living in coastal Maine; and, 2) To develop optimal organizations of existing small farm and family labor resources in order to maximize the incomes of these farm families.
B743: Primary Health Care and the Developmentally Disabled: An Analysis of the Normalization Principle in the State of Maine
Dennis A. Watkins, Julia M. Watkins, Sheila R. Bissonnette, and Betty A. Brown
At the time of publication, there existed an estimated group of 10 million American people defined as developmentally disabled. Stimulated in part by the often observed dehumanizing environment of institutional arrangement for the mentally disabled, the search for more humane treatment and management alternative has pointed in the direction of what has been termed ' normalization."
In 1969, the Danish Mental Retardation Service defined normalization as '' letting the mentally retarded obtain an existence as close to normal as possible."
The focus of this study is on barriers to the normalization principle in the provision of primary health care to the developmentally disabled in the State of Maine. Possible barriers include attitudes toward the developmentally disabled, accessibility and quality of community based services, and lack of viable coordination mechanisms. Since 1971, the Maine Department of Mental Health and Corrections has made a concerted effort to encourage services based upon the principle of normalization. As pressures for normalization intensify, it seems warranted that those community-based structures which carry out the concept be examined as to their receptivity and the feasibility of further efforts in this direction. Although the principle of normalization has demonstrated its usefulness and potential, it is not without its limitations (Mesibov 1976). This study made no attempt to examine these limitations of the principle itself.
Fay Hyland and Barbara Hoisington
Bogs are fascinating places to visit! One may compare these sphagnum-covered areas with huge amphitheatres covered with wall- to-wall carpets intricately woven into multistructured mats. To the novice or one without botanical training, these areas might appear as monotonous assemblages of only a few species of stunted plants so similar in appearance as to appear homogeneous, but a keen observer will detect as many different species as might be found in a rich woods. By use of keys, descriptions, and illustrations provided , identification of all species is made easy and certain. Fifty or more different kinds of woody plants alone may be readily distinguished in bogs in the area covered by this publication. They are illustrated and described in this bulletin.
Edward F. Johnston
The objective of this study was to find where economies in scale lie, and what, if any, would be the preferred or most economical in packing facilities. Data relative to equipment and labor requirements and capabilities and to materials and services were obtained through manufacturers, sales agencies, research studies and case studies. Two computerized programs were developed to select equipment, labor, and facilities which would be most efficient and least-cost and this was done for packing 10-pound bags with potatoes. Ten model lines resulted from the analysis allowing for input rates of 80 to 800 cwt/hr when based on a particular set of variables established as "standard". Among the standard variables were 180 working days of 9 hours each, with the equipment operating 80% of the time handling an input flow of potatoes from which 10 percent were removed as undersized and 10 percent were removed as grade defective.
Craig E. Shuler and Barry J. Kotek
This bulletin presents the results of a survey conducted in Maine to gather data regarding location, availability, and types of primary mill and secondary plant residues currently being generated.
F. Richard King and Forest M. French
This study analyzed waste disposal problems related to Maine poultry processing plants. The problems of the Maine plants are quite typical of those found in the industry outside Maine. Two exceptions to this generality are amount of water used and cost of replacement and operation of the treatment facility. Maine plants appear to use more water than plants located in competing areas but they are of larger average size and have access to municipal water supplies and therefore are not particularly disadvantaged.
Wallace C. Dunham and Munden M. Bray
The primary purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the feasibility of developing profitable markets for Maine raised Ostrea edulis. More specifically the objective were to (1) evaluate trend in oyster supplies, including landings, imports, and exports in the U.S., Canada and France; (2) analyze trends in oyster consumption in the U.S., Canada, and France and develop a predictive equation based on factors influencing consumption in each of these areas; (3) evaluate the economic feasibility of developing a half-shell oyster market for Maine raised oysters.
Wilbert C. Geiss Jr. and Reginald K. Harlan
The purpose of this study was to collect data relative to the costs of growing, harvesting, storing, and packing apples in Maine, to analyze the factors affecting costs and returns, and to provide Maine apple producers with current information for adjusting farm resources to achieve optimum efficiency in production under rapidly changing economic conditions.
This study was undertaken to determine the profitability of Maine apple farms, and to determine the current size and scope of the Maine apple industry. The results and implications of this study should be useful to all concerned with the apple industry in Maine and New England.
B700: Seasonal Home Residents in Five Maine Communities, Socio-Economic Characteristics, Use Patterns, and Environmental Attitudes
D. M. Tobey
The trend of seasonal residency is growing in Maine. Maine, as a state and by individual communities, needs to know more about its seasonal residents if it is to accommodate their recreational demands now and plan for changing use patterns in the future. Such questions as how many children the seasonal resident has in his household, how many days the seasonal home is in use each season, and what the resident plans to do with his property in the future are all-important for recreational planning both state-wide and on an individual community basis.
In this study, the investigator has attempted to identify pertinent socio-economic characteristics of seasonal residents in Maine, to ascertain the use patterns and future plans of these residents, and to describe their attitudes toward certain aspects of their seasonal community's environmental quality. The data are presented, for the most part, in descriptive tables. The text points out features of interest in each table, although the reader may discover information important to them beyond that highlighted by the writer. In addition, a profile of "The Typical Seasonal Resident" (pages 26-27) summarizes the most frequent responses for the group surveyed.
Jeffrey L. Hengsbach
The purpose of this study was to prepare a series of alternative plans for three time periods (1968, 1975, and 2000) for the Upper St. John River watershed. The plans contain proposals for a primitive type of recreational development based on private investment. One set of plans is an integration of recreational use with the existing timber use, and another set provides for recreational use of the area surrounding the reservoir in the event the proposed Dickey Dam is constructed.
B658: Susceptibility and Vulnerability of Forests to the Pine Leaf Aphid Pineus Pinilolile (Fitch) (Adelgidae)
John B. Dimond and Robert H. Bishop
In the late 1950s, early 1960s, Maine and surrounding regions experienced an outbreak of the pine leaf aphid (or adelgid). The population progression began about 1955, as indicated by tree growth reductions (2), a peak was reached about 1961, after which populations gradually regressed through the late 1960s. As a result of the outbreak, there was considerable growth reduction of white pine in some regions and scattered tree mortality. Among the many observations on the insect made during the outbreak were (a) the aphid was abundant in only certain portions of Maine and remained uncommon in the remainder of the state, and (b) in those regions where the insect was abundant, some stands of pine suffered relatively severe damage while others were largely unaffected. This study sought to provide explanations for differences in the abundance of aphids throughout the state and the varying amount of damage between stands. Information gained in a study of this sort is useful in explaining the distribution and abundance of the insect and in suggesting silvicultural procedures designed to increase resistance of stands to insect damage.
Kenneth E. Wing and Frank D. Reed
This bulletin, in addition to presenting some statistical data on the growth and development of the broiler industry in Maine, includes the results of a survey made in 1967 of a representative sample of Maine contract broiler growers. A sample of 180 out of the approximately 900 broiler farms in Maine was surveyed during the summer of 1967 to obtain operating results for 1966. From this sample, 103 farms supplied information that was analyzed in this study. The average Maine broiler farm in 1966 had 20,913 square feet of floor space, which was unoccupied for an average of 65 days during the year. The average farm started 105,166 birds and marketed 99,235 birds, of which 93 percent were broilers and 7 percent were roasters. Total land area was 90 acres per farm and very little land was used for cropland or for other livestock enterprises. Average cash receipts per farm were $10,097, average cash expenses were $4,322, and average net cash income was $5,775 per farm in 1966. Net cash income tended to become greater as the size of farm became larger, ranging from an average of $2,931 on the smallest farms to an average of $8,820 on the largest farms. Broiler payments received in 1966 averaged 45.4¢ per square foot of floor space and $95.70 per 1000 birds marketed.
F. E. Manzer and George R. Cooper
Aerial photography was shown to be a valuable tool for the detection of late blight and other diseases and disorders of potato. Aero infrared and Ektachrome Aero Infrared films were used to demonstrate that potato foliage, normally highly reflective to near-infrared radiation, loses this property when in an unhealthy condition. The 10 in reflectivity seems to vary in proportion to the magnitude of the vine damage. Vine damage resulting from infection by the late blight fungus can be detected on either of the infrared film before visual plant symptoms develop.