Document Type

Opinion Piece

Publication Title

J Clin Hypertens


Wiley Periodicals, LLC

Publication Date


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Abstract/ Summary

Papers dealing with the history of the study of hypertension provide an invaluable window to our past. They identify our misconceptions, mistakes, and advances and describe the evolution of new knowledge. New knowledge develops in the context of contemporary scientific knowledge and zeitgeist. Zeitgeist is the German word for the defining mood or spirit of a particular era as expressed in the ideas and beliefs of the time.

The limitations of a scientist's knowledge and perspective at any given point in time must be considered in historical context. Therefore, we must tread carefully when criticizing a scientist's thinking and ideas that are squarely in the context of the times.

In this paper, we make the argument that important published words of Dr. John J. Hay and Paul Dudley White, pioneers in the study of hypertension, have been diminished by contextomy. Our goal is to set the record straight.

Publisher Statement

Elias MF, Goodell AL. Setting the record straight for two heroes in hypertension: John J. Hay and Paul Dudley White. J Clin Hypertens. 2019;21: 1429–1431. https ://




publisher's version of the published document



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In Copyright