Document Type

Honors Thesis

Publication Date



The Basque desire for independence or self-governance has been a part of Basque political culture since the medieval era. The Basques have a history of democracy and preserved their self-governance in the face of invasion and domination for many centuries. The purpose of this thesis is to track the movement to the current day and address what has become known as “The Basque Question”, which refers to what exactly Spain should do with its Basque population and the Autonomous region. I address the two major aspects of the movement, which include the Basque terrorist group known as Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (“Basque Homeland and Freedom”) and the national political parties within the Basque region. I also examine the roots of the nationalist movement and how it relates to Basque identity. The conclusion is a policy recommendation for the Spanish government on how they should address the situation in light of recent elections within the Basque country and new developments with ETA.