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Retzlaff’s article examines how stereotypes were applied to Irish newcomers in early Belfast, Maine, even by “old-timers,” who also descended from Irish immigrants. Neither shared ancestry nor shared religion removed the stigma of these stereotypes, which complicated Irish identity in Belfast during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as Protestant and Catholic newcomers alike sought to benefit from their ties to the Irish community while separating themselves from their Irish tropes. Kay Retzlaff is a professor of English at the University of Maine at Augusta. She earned her PhD from the University of Maine. Her MA and BA are from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. She has taught at the University of Kentucky and the American University. She is writing the history of the Irish community in Belfast, Maine