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During the time that the Medical School of Maine was educating men and women from Maine and other New England states, the profession of medicine and American society in general were undergoing a period of sweeping change. Advancement in medical knowledge, in the midst of an industrial revolution, created opportunities for, as well as expectations of, the profession, which formed the basis for the modern practice of medicine and the contemporary concept of professionalism in medicine. This paper chronicles the 100-year period of medical education by the Medical School of Maine, the ultimate demise of the institution, and the legacy that it created for the profession of medicine in the State of Maine. Dr. Thomas Keating is a Maine native and a graduate of Bowdoin College. He attended Tufts University School of Medicine and, since 1988, has practiced medical oncology and palliative medicine at New England Cancer Specialists in Brunswick. He has received master’s degrees in health policy and management and in bioethics. Dr. Keating lives with his wife in Brunswick, has a son and daughter, and enjoys running and baking bread. The author would like to extend special thanks to the George Mitchell Department of Special Collections and Archives at Bowdoin College and the Archives of the Medical Library of Maine Medical Center.