Although slaves and poor, free menial laborers were by no means a majority of the population in late colonial-era Maine, they represented a culturally and socioeconomically signiﬁcant part of commercial society there, especially at Falmouth in Casco Bay (now Portland) and in coastal Cumberland County. This essay uncovers the lives of the Falmouth’s small slave population and its larger poor menial laborer population from 1760 up to the port city’s destruction by the British in 1775. The author was granted a Ph.D. in history from the University of Maine in 2009. He is a member of the Maine Historical Society, the New England Historical Association, and Phi Alpha Theta.
Outwin, Charles P.. "A Company of Shadows: Slaves and Poor Free Menial Laborers in Cumberland County, Maine, 1760 – 1775." Maine History 46, 2 (2012): 126-148. https://digitalcommons.library.umaine.edu/mainehistoryjournal/vol46/iss2/2