Date of Award


Level of Access Assigned by Author

Open-Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Food Science and Human Nutrition


Alfred A. Bushway

Second Committee Member

Rodney J. Bushway

Third Committee Member

Mary Ellen Camire


A growing trend in the food industry is the development of pre-cooked, ready-to-eat, meat products that only require reheating. However, reheating meats creates off-flavors that have been identified as warmed-over flavors (WOF). The off-flavors pose a problem to product development specialists during the development of cooked meat products. Lipid oxidation has been determined to effect warmed-over flavor, texture, and the appearance of reheated meat products. Ground turkey undergoes lipid oxidation rapidly because of its high-unsaturated fat content. Blueberries contain antioxidants, including anthocyanins and phenolic acids, which could potentially retard the rate of lipid oxidation in precooked meats. Blueberries are assorted according to grades by color and size. Grade A is the standard for selling fiesh, but some blueberries do not meet the requirements for Grade A. Therefore, the blueberries that do not meet grade A status are utilized in other blueberry products or discarded. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Grade A and Non-Grade A (Floater/Rejects) lowbush blueberry purees on oxidation in ground turkey patties held in refrigerated and frozen storage over time. In both studies, ground turkey patty treatments were prepared containing 3.5% wlw Grade A blueberry puree, 3.5% Non-Grade A blueberry puree, and a control with 0% puree. Patties were held in refrigerated storage at 4C and frozen storage at -18C. Gas chromatography using headspace analysis and thiobarbituric acid tests (TBARS) were performed to determine the extent of lipid oxidation. Overall, in both studies there were significantly lower (p50.05) TBARS and hexanal concentrations for both purees compared to the control patties regardless of storage temperature. The blueberry purees retarded the rate of lipid oxidation in the turkey patties. The possible implications of these studies are incorporating blueberry purees into precooked meat systems to prevent lipid oxidation. Warmed-over flavor (WOF) attributes were determined by a descriptive sensory panel. Results showed that panelists described WOF taste as rancid and metallic. Panelists also found blueberry treatments had a sweeter flavor than a control patty with no puree. An acceptance panel determined that both purees were acceptable in precooked ground turkey patties compared to a control with no puree and a fresh cooked turkey patty. However, panelists were less likely to purchase pre-cooked turkey patties containing either blueberry puree compared to a fresh cooked turkey patty.