Date of Award
Level of Access Assigned by Author
Master of Arts (MA)
Second Committee Member
Third Committee Member
The present research sought to examine the effects of self-affirmation on women’s confrontation approaches following exposure to sexism. However, before examining the effects of self-affirmation, we needed a way to measure confrontation approaches. In Study 1, participants read either prototypical HATE or CARE confrontations and assessed the response. Researchers then conducted an exploratory factor analysis to create a novel scale that can assess approaches to confrontation. Study 1 also established the reliability of the HATE and CARE subscales (α = .956 and α = .929, respectively). Study 2 sought to establish the construct validity of the new measure. Study 2 implemented the same procedure as Study 1 and a confirmatory factor analysis revealed that while there is room to improve the new measure, the model fit is not necessarily bad. Finally, Study 3 explored the effects of self-affirmation on women’s confrontation approaches after exposure to sexism. After manipulating self-affirmation, women participated in an imagined scenario where they responded to a male colleague making sexist comments. We hypothesized that (1) self-affirmed women would directly confront the sexism less than non-affirmed women, (2) self-affirmed women would have lower HATE scores than non-affirmed women, (3) self-affirmed women would have higher CARE scores than non- affirmed women, (4) self-affirmed women would have lower perceived responsibly to confront compared to non-affirmed women, and (5) self-affirmed women would have lower negative state affect than non-affirmed women. Results of the statistical analyses supported Hypothesis 1. Implications for the findings of the three studies are discussed.
Roderick, Kathryn L., "I am Kind, I am Smart, I am Important: The Effects of Self- Affirmation on Women’s Confrontational Responses to Sexism" (2022). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 3665.