Date of Award

Fall 12-18-2015

Level of Access Assigned by Author

Open-Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counselor Education


Sid Mitchell

Second Committee Member

Sandra Caron

Third Committee Member

John Maddaus

Additional Committee Members

Annette Nelligan

William Dee Nichols


An Abstract of the Dissertation Presented

in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
(in Education)
December 2015

Bullying in schools is one of the most prevalent challenges for teachers, administrators, and counselors all over the world (Esbensen & Carson, 2009; Merrell, Gueldner, Ross & Isava, 2008). The increase in bullying is evident by the growing interest in the behaviour, as well as intervention and prevention programs (Esbensen & Carson, 2009). This study examines the retrospective view of 10 university students who were identified as bullies during junior high years. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted, and analyzed. Themes were identified including: 1) no common “bullying” definition, and media contribution to this, 2) the behavior was seen as serving a purpose, 3) all participants harboured sad memories and regrets for their behavours, and finally 4) participants identified gaps in the system that may help mitigate the problem. Gaps identified by participants included: education on bullying, the absence of a clear definition, and potential consequences for all persons involved. Ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders will be beneficial. Recommendations from this study include education on bullying and professional development for staff especially school counselors.