Date of Award


Level of Access

Open-Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Food and Nutrition Sciences


Dorothy J. Klimis-Zacas

Second Committee Member

Robert A. Lehnhard

Third Committee Member

Adriane A. White


At all levels of intensity and duration, exercise is known to cause an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). When derivatives of oxygen occur and exist independently with one or more unpaired electrons they are known as “free radicals” (Halliwell and Gutteridge 2007). Since atoms possess electrons that are usually associated in pairs, free radicals have the potential to act negatively in the body. Reactive oxygen species refer to oxygen-centered radicals as well as nonradical but reactive derivatives of oxygen (Halliwell and Gutteridge 2007). When ROS are created in excess, resulting in the disruption of the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance, the physiological system is said to be in a state of “oxidative stress”. The harmful effects of oxidative stress include inflammation, damage to DNA, decreased ability to replenish muscle glycogen and an increased resistance to insulin (Dokken, Saengsirisuwan et al. 2008).