Date of Award
Level of Access Assigned by Author
Master of Arts (MA)
Second Committee Member
Third Committee Member
This study is the first to test the evolutionary hypothesis that mixed-age settings increase cooperation and reduce competition among peers. Triads of 30 preschoolers (ages 4-6) and 10 third to six graders (ages 8-13) were observed when they were involved in a game playing situation that involved limited resources, where 20 pairs of preschoolers were tested twice: once in a same-age group and once in a mixed-age group. Children in mixed-age groups were more cooperative than children in same-age groups and these cooperative behaviors were more frequently initiated by older children. Whereas children in same-age groups spent more time interfering and being unoccupied, children in the mixed-age groups spent more time playing the game, were more equitable and better organized and had more smooth turn-taking behaviors than same-age groups. These findings demonstrate the potential benefits of mixed-age interaction that are deeply rooted in our evolutionary heritage.
Liu, Chao, "Does a Mixed-age Setting Reduce Competition and Increase Cooperation Among Children?" (2013). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 1941.