Date of Award


Level of Access Assigned by Author

Open-Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Literacy Education


Richard B. Kent

Second Committee Member

Janice V. Kristo

Third Committee Member

Susan Bennett-Armistead


Across the globe, students learn with digital texts, classrooms connect through the world-wide web, and elementary students apprentice in highly technical skills such as moviemaking or animation. As education embarks on the second decade of the 21st century, technology is becoming more sought after than ever before as countries prepare their youth for the future. But educational technology initiatives could easily leave learning stagnant and waste millions of public dollars if not designed and implemented in ways to create transformative learning experiences to prepare youth for today's highly collaborative digital world. This study investigates how teachers view various influences encouraging or discouraging the use of technology in the classroom, particularly in ways that transform education to a constructivist, innovative experience.

This qualitative study uses cultural historical activity theory as a conceptual and analytical framework, enabling the identification and analysis of various pressures on classroom educators to either incorporate instructional technology in their classroom practice, or work in opposition to its integration.

Data was collected through field observation and interview and was analyzed by identifying the source of influences from community, technology, instructional, curricular, administrative and classroom-based origins. Participants said they were more likely to integrate technology when receiving strong technical and pedagogical support through intervention of a technology integration specialist, support from professional relationships, positive student responses and levels of engagement, and a visible benefit to instruction.

This study analyzes the perceptions of a small group of participants with varying levels of experience in a 1:1 computing environment. Future studies could focus on the role of the technology integration specialist as a pedagogical and technical support for classroom educators. Additional studies could expand the research by evaluating other models of technological and pedagogical support in 1:1 environments.