Document Type


Publication Title

Journal of Glaciology

Rights and Access Note

This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. In addition, no permission is required from the rights-holder(s) for educational uses. For other uses, you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).

Publication Date


First Page


Last Page


Issue Number


Volume Number


Abstract/ Summary

Empirical data suggest that the race of calving of grounded glaciers terminating in water is directly proportional to the water depth. Important controls on calving may be the extent to which a calving face tends to become oversteepened by differential flow within the ice and the extent to which bending moments promote extrusion and bottom crevassing at the base of a calving face. Numerical modelling suggests that the tendency to become oversteepened increases roughly linearly with water depth. In addition, extending longitudinal deviatoric stresses at the base of a calving face increase with water depth. These processes provide a possible physical explanation for the observed calving-rate/water-depth relation.

Citation/Publisher Attribution

Hanson, B, and Hooke, RL, 2000, Glacier Calving: A Numerical Model of Forces in the Calving-Speed/Water-Depth Relation: Journal of Glaciology, v. 46, p. 188-196. Available on publisher's site at:

Publisher Statement

© Copyright 2000 by the International Glaciological Society




publisher's version of the published document



Rights Statement

In Copyright - Educational Use Permitted.