The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have triggered global pandemic that continue to impact adversely human health. New understanding has emerged about the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The understanding of innate immune responses generated in hosts early in SARS-CoV-2 infection is vital for treatment efforts. Antiviral cytokines are released by innate immune cells in response to viral infections that play a pivotal role in limiting viral replication, pathology and generating optimal adaptive immune responses alongside the long-term memory responses against reinfections. One aspect of innate immune response generated against SARS-CoV-2 in vivo and which has received much attention has been high proinflammatory cytokine release in COVID-19 patients. Another vital discovery has been that the antiviral cytokine type I Interferon (IFN) family IFN-α mediates upregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) membrane protein in airway epithelial cells. ACE2 is a receptor that SARS-CoV-2 binds to infect host cells. New understanding has emerged about the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 induced exaggerated proinflammatory cytokine release as well as transcriptional regulation of ACE2. This review discusses various mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 induced exaggerated proinflammatory cytokine response as well as transcriptional regulation of ACE2 receptor. We further elaborate on adaptive and memory responses generated against SARS-CoV-2.
COVID-19_Teaching, Learning & Research_2020_05_19a
Mumtaz Y. Balkhi, Mechanistic understanding of innate and adaptive immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Molecular Immunology, Volume 135, 2021, ISSN 0161-5890, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.04.021.
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Balkhi, Mumtaz Y., "Mechanistic understanding of innate and adaptive immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection" (2021). Teaching, Learning & Research Documents. 74.