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Biting and swarming black flies are abundant in Maine and can cause serious discomfort to humans, especially in recreational areas where their presence may substantially decrease satisfaction in outdoor activities. In 1985, 1986 and 1987 a series of experimental applications of B.t.i. was made on property owned by the Sugarloaf Mountain Corporation. The 198 5 study determined the persistenc e o f B.t.i. in stream and river water and the concentration necessary to achieve >90% mortality in black fly larvae. It also indicated that B.t.i. had no detectable impact on non-target organisms. In 1986 and 1987 the objective was to determine if controlling the black fly larvae in streams within the Sugarloaf property would result in decreasing adult human nuisance flies to an acceptable level.
Maine Agricultural Experiment Station
Gibbs, K.E., R.J. Boyer, B.P. Molloy, and D.A. Hutchins. 1988. Experimental stream applications of B.t.i. for human nuisance black fly management in a recreational area. Maine Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 133.